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It is said that the COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the single biggest driving forces behind the digitalization of industries ever seen. And although not new within HVAC infrastructures – especially within the food retail environment where it has been rolled out extensively – remote management and automation of HVAC systems is increasingly being used to support supermarket responses to COVID-19. From air filtration through to dynamic scheduling, digitalization of HVAC within the food retail sector is going through something of a renaissance. Pre-COVID Digitalization Software solutions that use Internet of Things (IoT) technology to analyze data from HVAC infrastructures, for example, are common in food retail stores. These solutions work by monitoring mission critical aspects of HVAC systems, from simple temperature data through to complex asset monitoring. This data can then either be fed back to the retailer for them to perform their own analysis or, using more advanced IoT technology, can be used to enact automated HVAC outcomes. Software solutions that use IoT technology to analyze data from HVAC infrastructures are common in food retail stores From preventing HVAC asset’s overworking – and therefore expending too much energy – through to detecting the first stages of a fault and alerting the relevant maintenance engineers, automation has been shown to deliver numerous benefits. These combine to serve the retailer’s primary purposes; enhancing the consumers in-store experience, improving the bottom line and decreasing energy usage to lower carbon footprint. But not only is the digitalization of HVAC helping food retailers drive down costs and energy, advances in areas such as air filtration and dynamic scheduling have meant that it is also being seen as a potential solution to COVID-19 related issues. Filtering Out the Virus Air filtration is a primary focus when looking for ways to keep internal spaces free from pathogens. While not exactly a new feature for HVAC systems, food retailers have been increasingly working towards implementing or improving their existing air filtration techniques in their stores. The solution to keeping air clean and fresh is actually quite straightforward and relies on the same technology that many stores already use to monitor CO2. Advances in areas such as air filtration and dynamic scheduling have meant that HVAC is being seen as a potential solution to COVID-19 By connecting CO2 monitors to a central controls panel (the technical way of describing the place where all of the sensor data is collected and, in some cases, analyzed), sensors are able to detect the CO2 levels instore, signal if they begin to drift past a pre-determined base level, and automatically alert the HVAC systems to provide more fresh air into the store. This is a simple process of optimization. Additional sensors detect when fresh air is either too humid, hot or cold to be filtered into the store and rectify this by automatically adjusting the HVAC. Essentially, monitoring CO2 and air quality levels makes sure the air in a store is constantly fresh and filtered to keep the chances of airborne transmission as low as possible without causing the HVAC systems to expend any more energy than is necessary. Research has shown that COVID-19 spreads through small respiratory droplets that are released into the air from an infected person when coughing, talking or even breathing. Within a store environment therefore, where surface contamination and proximity to other people are likely to increase the chances of transmitting the virus, optimized fresh air flow to dilute indoor air is desirable. By detecting higher levels of CO2 within the air which in turn increases the chances of pathogens floating around, food retailers can automate their HVAC systems to filtrate the air and significantly reduce chances of transmission. Dynamic HVAC Response Air filtration isn’t the only way that food retailers are combining digitalization and HVAC systems to help them navigate the ‘new normal’. With store opening times continually changing, fewer people inside a store at any one time and staff performing additional and stricter clean regimes after hours, the requirements for optimum store temperature have moved from static to dynamic. Before the pandemic, HVAC systems would have to keep an average non-24 hour store at the optimum temperature for between say, 7am and 11pm, and would have to work a little harder to deliver more air into the store during the lunch time rush and post-work peaks – a mostly predictable routine. Research has shown that COVID-19 spreads through small respiratory droplets that are released into the air from an infected person Now, however, with adjusted store schedules and social distancing regulations, the footfall and peak traffic times have changed dramatically. Through digitally enabled remote management of HVAC temperatures and schedules, new schedules could be deployed across the estate at the touch of a button. Real-time monitoring of in-store temperatures and the volume of people inside also enables HVAC systems to run more efficiently by stopping them from filtering in more outside air than is necessary in a shop that contains fewer customers than normal. IoT solutions are ensuring HVAC infrastructures are running efficiently, saving energy, helping a retailer’s bottom line and most importantly, ensuring the comfort and safety of customers and colleagues. However, as retailers look for solutions to the challenges posed by the post-COVID landscape, digitalized HVAC is breathing fresh air into the industry. From improved air filtration to dynamic schedule monitoring, digitalized HVAC systems are proving to be an important tool in a food retailer’s arsenal as they navigate the new normal.
Effective heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems have always been part of maintaining a healthy building environment, and with the impact of COVID-19 and the unique way the virus is spread, it has never been more imperative that HVAC plays a vital role in keeping occupants of buildings safe, especially as people begin to return to the office and other commercial environments. COVID-19 has three known contamination routes. First of all, there is person-to-person transmission, which could be indirect too, if the virus travels from someone to a surface they have touched, which is then touched by another person. Then there is airborne transmission. The British Council for Offices (BCO)’s Thoughts on Office Design and Operation After COVID 19 document talks of large droplets, greater than 10 micrometres, “expelled by sneezing and coughing and in still air, typically within about 2 metres of the infected person.” But Dr Linsey Marr, the Charles P. Lunsford Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, speaking to the New Scientist says that people emit thousands of times more smaller droplets than larger ones. She thinks that it is these ones that infect people with COVID-19. Then there’s the third contamination route: faecal to oral whereby particles from the toilet can enter people’s respiritory systems when using WCs. Counteracting COVID-19 transmission There are several methods to counteract these routes of transmission. The risk of the virus spreading from person-to-person can be lessened where there is a focus on smart technology. This begins upon arrival at a building, with the use of touchless entry systems, for instance harnessing facial recognition technology. Once inside, staff could then be directed to an area of the office that isn’t already occupied via digital signage or an app. And instead of manually pressing a button, information from the employee’s ID pass about which floor they work on can be read by a card reader, activating the elevator. As for transmissions via surfaces, scientists have emphasized copper’s antibacterial properties, with COVID-19 surviving just a few hours on copper, compared with a number of days for steel or plastic. William Keevil, a senior microbiologist at the University of Southampton, has recently suggested that the UK is behind other countries in using this material on communal areas like handrails and doorknobs. Copper-based nickel would perform better than chrome in certain parts of the office too. The risk of the virus spreading from person-to-person can be lessened where there is a focus on smart technology To dilute airborne contamination, the Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers (CIBSE) recommends running ventilation systems at a higher flow rate. “This may require changes to C02 set points for both mechanical ventilation and automated windows,” it states in its COVID-19 Ventilation Guidance. Airborne Particles and the need for ventilation Chinese and American academics looking at outbreaks in the Chinese province of Zhejiang found that airborne transmission of the virus may have taken place in 48.3% of people in a badly ventilated office. Essentially to stop the spread of COVID-19, ventilation needs to be increased and more fresh air needs to be brought in. The risk of contamination via recirculated air can be mitigated with a higher level of filtration such as F9. This is a very fine system that will catch nanoparticles of 70nm but does involve greater energy use to overcome the resistance. The alternative is to keep these systems on for much longer – typically two hours before people arrive and then two hours after they leave. CIBSE’s COVID-19 report also states that, “Recirculation of air within a single room, where this is complemented by an outdoor air supply, is acceptable.” Getting abundant fresh air in the system is key. This could be as simple as just opening the windows. The BCO’s report goes so far as to say, “Actively use operable windows and openings to boost ventilation to occupied spaces as much as possible, even if this is at the expense of thermal comfort.” Fan coils and Chilled beams Getting abundant fresh air in the system is key The BCO also recommends that fan coils, which recirculate air locally in the occupied space, “should be frequently and thoroughly cleaned and where condensation occurs, drain pans and traps should be maintained frequently to prevent growth of bacteria and mold.” It is also a recommendation that HepVo traps are installed on condensate systems that drain into waste pipework. As far as chilled beams are concerned, CIBSE says that active chilled beams can be operated as normal, while with passive chilled beams there should be a good supply of air. I would be interested to see some further research on the performance of underfloor and low level air distribution. The lower velocities and laminar air flow associated with these systems causes less air turbulence, particularly in the zone where air is breathed. This would seem to have an obvious advantage in reducing the risk of virus spread in an office environment. Mixed Mode Ventilation The ‘mixed mode’ of ventilation will become more commonplace. When it is not high summer, the cooling can be turned off so windows can be opened. This could even eventually replace the familiar sealed building model. This system can happen automatically with sensors, after all, fresh air is good for people: There are several recent examples of this being done successfully, other building such as London Wall Place, have been designed future proofed for ‘mixed mode’ use to be adopted if this is preferred by a tenant. Meanwhile, to combat faecal-oral transmission, bathroom extraction fans need to be kept on high and again perhaps running the systems for 24 hours a day. Toilets that automatically shut and touchless flushes can also help to stop the spread of the virus. The same goes for anti-bacterial coatings on bathroom doors. Some of clients are considering motorized doors that are effectively ‘touch free’. Post-COVID Ventilation Strategies Toilets that automatically shut and touchless flushes can also help to stop the spread of the virus There is definitely set to be more access to outside air moving forward and there is a strong sustainability argument to be made for this method. However, some of the changes to ventilation strategies being deployed for a post-COVID world will inevitably have some compromises for carbon emissions. If systems are run at a higher rate and for longer, if not continuously, throughout the day then that has implications for a larger carbon footprint, as the buildings become less energy efficient. However, in the middle of a global pandemic, it’s a price worth paying. As energy saving methods (thermal wheels and plate heat exchangers) also present a risk, CIBSE recommends that these are bypassed and not used in the current environment Of course, some of these solutions are temporary but other, smart office elements like touchless versions of door handles, room/desk booking systems (wayfinding) and reception sign-in procedures look set to be with us for the longer term. These all affect the M&E, as well as the architecture and design of buildings. We will overcome COVID-19 but we need to listen to the lessons that we are learning, and some will most certainly become permanent before the next virus that hits the human race comes along!
Thermo King®, a provider in transport temperature control solutions and a brand of Trane Technologies, announced that its new hybrid refrigeration systems for trucks and high-loaders are being delivered to customers across Europe. The new T-Series Hybrid and UT Hybrid refrigeration systems seamlessly switch between diesel and electric mode allowing transporters to operate in inner cities, residential areas and low emission zones with the unit’s diesel engine turned off. Greggs, UK’s bakery food-on-the-go retailer with over 1,800 shops nationwide and serving over six million customers a week, is one of the first customers in Europe to experience the benefits of the new hybrid refrigeration systems. Three new trucks with Thermo King’s hybrid systems will contribute to lowering the environmental impact and reducing operating costs of their truck transport operations in central London. Reducing sound level and eliminating emissions “Thermo King units have been our systems of choice for several years now. Their units have delivered good flexibility and work efficiency to our operations, and we could also always count on the Thermo King dealer service network to support us,” said Richard Penna, group logistics manager at Greggs. “We’re very cautious about the sustainability of our transport operations. It is paramount for us to operate in inner cities with as little noise and reduced emissions as possible. It was a natural choice to work with Thermo King and equip our trucks with these new units that can easily switch from diesel operation to electric, reduce the sound level and eliminate emissions. On top of that, we expect to benefit from the lower daily fuel consumption.” Trailer hybrid refrigeration “Thermo King Hybrid technology was designed to help transport and delivery companies future-proof their refrigerated operations and investments. With this solution they can stay ahead of regulations, control their total cost of ownership and achieve important sustainability goals,” said Colm O’Grady, product manager at Thermo King. “Thermo King was the first to offer its European customers a trailer hybrid refrigeration. Now, our truck transport customers can also benefit from this cleaner and electrified transport refrigeration to make urban distribution more flexible and sustainable.” Switching between electric and diesel operation The new hybrid single and multi-temperature solution for trucks feature Frigoblock alternator and inverter-drive technology. The nose-mount T-Series Hybrid and under-mount UT Hybrid refrigeration automatically switches between electric and diesel operation as required or necessary. This enables the transport companies to operate in inner cities, residential areas and low emission zones with the refrigeration unit’s diesel engine turned off. The system is also well accepted by drivers, mainly due to the simple and smooth transition from one drive technology to the other. The driver only needs to set the vehicle when leaving the depot and the system will switch electric and diesel modes seamlessly during the working day depending on the unit’s requirements. The T-Series Hybrid and UT Hybrid solutions are aligned with Trane Technologies’ 2030 sustainability commitments, and the commitment to reduce customers’ carbon emissions by one gigaton – equivalent to the annual emissions of Italy, France and the United Kingdom combined.
As the world works to contain the spread of the coronavirus COVID-19, the team at Trane is adapting to this rapidly evolving situation, implementing safety measures, and taking care of each other, the partners and the customers. They have implemented steps in an effort to protect the Trane team, the customers and the people who work, play and heal in the facilities where they provide services and systems. Trane’s business is largely categorized as ‘critical’ by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. They heat, cool, ventilate and service essential spaces like homes, hospitals, pharmacies, nursing homes, supermarkets, emergency services, data centers, construction and much more. These functions are essential for the health and safety of the global community, especially in this time of national emergency. Remote service capabilities Trane’s team is working hard to support the infrastructure that people around the world rely upon. Trane is very much open and operating – and the people who build and service the products are working in the manufacturing plants and at the customer sites. Trane will not compromise their health and safety, and are following all guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and country health departments. Trane is doing all they can to make sure they continue their critical work, while safeguarding the health and safety of the employees and the customers. Business critical local visits to the customer sites by account managers or technicians are continuing, in line with the safety protocols. They are also leveraging virtual and remote service capabilities as needed. Health Self-Assessments Where possible, they have asked their team members to hold customer and partner meetings virtually As needed, Trane will temporarily close certain sales offices per state and city requirements, but continue to operate and serve customers remotely, as well as continue on-site work as permitted. To inhibit the spread of the virus, they have prohibited all travel to and from high-risk areas outlined by the CDC, and have restricted all other non-essential travel. Where possible, they have asked their team members to hold customer and partner meetings virtually. Any employee who can work from home is encouraged to do so. Trane requires that all employees not working from home perform daily health self-assessments before coming to work. Anyone who has traveled to a high-risk area, has had suspected contact with a person who is infected or is symptomatic is asked to stay home and self-quarantine for 14 days before returning to company or customer sites. Enhanced cleaning procedures Like many companies, Trane has implemented new visitor policies at all of the locations, prohibiting visits from people who have traveled to high-risk areas or those exhibiting acute respiratory symptoms. They are implementing additional safety measures at all facilities in line with guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and country health departments, including enhanced cleaning procedures and screenings, personal protective equipment usage and guidance, and communications on hand washing and other preventive measures. Ever-Changing circumstances The situation continues to evolve quickly, and they remain committed to supporting the people They have flexible work arrangements in place for employees who can work from home, country-specific benefits for employees on leave for quarantine or illness, U.S. access to back-up child and eldercare assistance, and a Helping Hand Fund, which assists employees around the world dealing with unexpected financial hardships. The situation continues to evolve quickly, and they remain committed to supporting the people, the customers and partners during this unprecedented time. Trane is prepared to lead their customers through the ever-changing circumstances as it relates to their facilities and building projects. The best way to stay in contact with Trane is through the local account manager, who can discuss the specific situation. In addition to new and existing projects or services, please reach out in any of the following categories as needed: How to operate facilities more efficiently with vacant spaces Available options for remote service and monitoring to avoid additional bodies in a building Answers to questions about air quality and ventilation solutions Temporary and rental solutions for new or expanded healthcare operations
As countries around the world work to contain the spread of COVID-19 and prepare to reopen, Trane Technologies is addressing critical needs for healthier air quality in buildings, hospitals and homes and safe transport for food and medicine. The global climate innovator has seen a growing focus on indoor air quality in buildings, including hospitals and other healthcare settings. At the same time, strain on the grocery supply chain and concerns about a pandemic-driven food supply crisis highlight the vital role transport refrigeration plays in getting perishables safely to their destinations. Healthier and Sustainable Buildings “Sustainable, reliable and efficient climate control technologies matter more today than at any other time in recent history,” said Mike Lamach, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer for Trane Technologies. “Society will increasingly depend on the latest technologies for airflow and filtration, controls and remote operation, and precision temperature control for transportation. As we serve these needs, strengthen infrastructure and increase efficiency and resiliency, we are improving health and safety for people, communities and the planet.” efficient built environments Technologies such as Trane Catalytic Air Cleaning systems include special filtration and UV light systems “While there are still a lot of unknowns about how the virus that causes COVID-19 spreads, what we do know is that proper design, installation and maintenance of HVAC systems are key to maintaining healthier and more efficient built environments,” said Dave Regnery, President and Chief Operating Officer for Trane Technologies. “By ensuring proper air treatment, filtration, ventilation and decontamination, we’re helping to keep people safe and comfortable in even the most challenging situations.” Technologies such as Trane Catalytic Air Cleaning systems include special filtration and UV light systems to remove pathogens and particulates from the air in healthcare facilities. In areas with specialized needs, such as isolation rooms and operating theaters, proper pressurization and airflow keep infections from spreading. supporting emergency hospital Other healthcare facilities, such as research laboratories and pharmaceutical manufacturers, also rely on specialized climate solutions to meet strict standards in air quality. Through rental options for climate and air quality control, Trane Technologies is also supporting emergency hospital expansions and temporary healthcare facilities – even tented facilities constructed in parking lots or parks. Remote monitoring and control systems enable building operators and technicians to monitor a building’s HVAC system around the clock, and technicians can diagnose and service issues that may impact efficient operation and air quality. Efficient Food and Medicine Transport It’s important that mechanical systems are checked and maintained after long periods of vacancy" “Beyond healthcare, indoor air quality is increasingly in focus as communities begin to reopen and people return to offices and eventually places like movie theaters, gyms, and shopping centers,” said Regnery. “It’s important that buildings’ mechanical systems are thoroughly checked and maintained after long periods of vacancy, with consideration to ventilation, airflow and humidity, to ensure healthy and efficient indoor environments.” Trane Technologies is helping to address another big challenge exacerbated by the pandemic: ensuring a safe, reliable cold chain to transport food and medicine. Feeding America says that food banks have seen a 70 percent increase in demand, and 40 percent of people served by food banks are new to the system. real-time intelligence “Perishable goods require precise temperature control,” said Regnery. “Even the slightest variance in temperature can cause food to spoil prematurely or compromise the integrity of life-saving medicine. Our communities need these products, so waste is not an option.” Thermo King telematics for real-time intelligence on the status of refrigeration equipment help fleet managers make sure units are running properly and efficiently to maintain safety and quality of the shipment. Further, the company offers special air filtration systems to improve air quality in vehicle passenger cabins for public transportation, such as buses. transport refrigeration technologies Trane Technologies is sponsoring and partnering with Feeding America and local food banks Through its transport refrigeration technologies and employee volunteers, Trane Technologies is sponsoring and partnering with Feeding America and local food banks to address growing food supply shortages and to divert food waste from farms to people in need. This includes establishing pop-up food pantries to serve thousands of people facing hardship. “We have an opportunity – and an obligation – to take care of our people, serve our customers in innovative ways and put our technology to work in service for our communities. Innovating and responding quickly are key to building community and global resilience,” said Regnery. transmission and mitigation There is strong evidence from The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and other sources that HVAC technologies can mitigate the risk of exposure to infectious aerosols in built environments; however, the transmission and mitigation of COVID-19 in buildings is yet to be fully tested and confirmed.