Friedrich Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps (PTHP) (14)
Browse Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps (PTHP)
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As our urban centers grow, so does our demand for key resources, such as energy. Currently, cities are accountable for over 60% of resource use and an estimated 70% of global carbon emissions. In the Middle East particularly, countries have experienced unprecedented population growth, increased economic activity and consequently, increases in energy consumption. Integration of sustainable systems Fortunately, industry leaders and governments are placing sustainability at the heart of regional plans for urban development. The integration of sustainable systems is no longer a value-added benefit, but rather a necessary requirement. I believe a vital element for sustainable development in our cities is energy management. Energy is a costly commodity representing an average of 25% of all operating costs in office buildings. This cost, however, can be reduced by using energy management to optimize HVAC systems employed in a building. Effective energy management Energy management involves proactive tracking, systemic management and thoughtful optimization of energy consumption in a building, with the goal of improving energy efficiency. The concept of energy efficiency takes into account a variety of factors; we must consider system design, quality of installation and maintenance, efficiency rates and personal use. If we assume a system is designed with greatest efficiency in mind, its effectiveness is still deeply impacted by installation, maintenance and use. ‘Performance drift’ issues One challenge we face with the efficiency of HVAC systems is ‘performance drift’ One challenge we face with the efficiency of HVAC systems is ‘performance drift’. When first installed, and even in the first few months, HVAC systems operate immaculately. Over time, however, component efficiency and system conditions ‘drift’ away from the originally installed operating curve, meaning that efficiency and performance of the system can degrade incrementally. The deteriorating performance of HVAC systems has consequences, such as unnecessary use of energy, resulting in higher costs and emissions, in addition to reduced comfort for building occupants. Energy efficient HVAC pumps In order to truly have an impact on energy consumption, a holistic approach must be adopted. Only by carefully examining and optimizing each part of the HVAC system, can we then find ways to improve it. In my experience with Armstrong Fluid Technology, in the last decade, the technology for HVAC pumps has been enhanced to provide up to 70% energy efficiency savings through demand-based control and parallel pumping technology. These innovations enable the pumps to operate at optimum levels, consuming as little energy as possible. Innovative smart technology Systems that incorporate innovative smart technology enable more accurate system performance analysis and optimization. Pumps can function as highly accurate flow meters that provide valuable insight for building managers and operators. Data from the intelligent connected pumps can be collected through active performance management software, which enables the HVAC system to learn, predict and optimize to deliver even greater energy efficiency and cost savings through maintained optimized performance. Systems incorporating innovative smart technology enable more accurate system performance analysis Active performance management software Active performance management software enables real time and historical data reporting that directly demonstrates system efficiency and savings. Given the global shift towards sustainable building construction, legislation on energy reporting is inevitable, therefore employing systems with this in-built capability can prove to be extremely beneficial in the future. The software can also help maintain client comfort at all times by enabling predictive maintenance. Systems can provide alerts when they detect faults, allowing for early replacement before a full breakdown. This can be particularly helpful in mission critical applications such as hospitals. Importance of analyzed data in system optimization Without the ability to analyze data, buildings managers and operators cannot properly optimize mechanical systems Evidently, collecting data is essential for many reasons, including preventing, and even reversing, the loss of energy efficiency. Without the ability to analyze data, buildings managers and operators cannot properly optimize mechanical systems, which results in unnecessary energy use, insufficient maintenance practices and any related costs. There may be hesitation in the industry to incorporate more sophisticated systems as they require initial investment, however, the returns from using more efficient mechanical systems are impressive. Executing energy upgrades for HVAC systems Simple payback on energy upgrade projects is usually reached within 3 to 5 years. Furthermore, energy savings continue for the life of the system. Properly executed energy upgrades deliver up to 40% savings on energy consumption related to HVAC operation. Savings on that level for a large facility can be impactful for business operations. Energy efficiency is not ‘visible’ but has the potential to have a transformative effect on climate change, if embraced on a large scale. If we consume energy only as we need to, then we consume less of it. This, in turn, reduces our consumption of fossil fuels and consequently our greenhouse gas emissions. Aside from short-term benefits, such as costs savings and increased operation efficiency, energy management has the ability to help conserve energy for generations to come. Embracing energy saving solutions If we embrace innovative energy saving solutions in the building services industry, then we can begin to make a difference. With the recent launch of plans for sustainable development, such as the Dubai Master Plan 2040, green infrastructure, supporting solutions, will thrive. The global shift towards embracing sustainability has made individuals and organizations call into question their impact on our planet. Embracing sustainability is no longer a preference but a strategic business approach that helps to create long-term value on a social, economic and environmental level. The role of energy efficiency, and the systems that enable it, will inevitably play a key role in creating more sustainable buildings, communities and cities.
It’s no secret that climate change is one of the most pressing concerns facing our planet. We must act collectively on behalf of future generations to enact the change that will help us to avoid a climate catastrophe; and not least the HVAC industry, which has been, and remains, a major contributor to atmospheric greenhouse gases and global warming. In 2015, the UK Government, along with 196 parties entered the legally binding international treaty on climate change, which was adopted at COP 21 in Paris. For the first time in history, all nations committed to undertake the necessary, ambitious steps to combat climate change. Significant environmental milestone Whilst this was clearly a significant environmental milestone, how realistic is the 2030 deadline for zero Global Warming Potential (GWP), from the HVAC industry’s viewpoint? The refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump (RACHP) sector is presently the largest of the F-gas emitting sectors. The RACHP sector is in fact the UK’s main user as well as emitter of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HFCs are now the main refrigerants used in a broad range of RACHP applications Since the phasing-out of ozone-depleting refrigerants (CFCs and HCFCs), HFCs are now the main refrigerants used in a broad range of RACHP applications, such as commercial refrigeration and air conditioning. It is therefore unsurprising that the spotlight has fallen on the RACHP sector. However, the EU F-Gas Regulation, which was introduced in 2014, is helping to reshape the sector, and lowering carbon emissions. The regulation stipulates: A 79% cut in the GWP weighted quantity of HFCs that can be sold in the EU by 2030. Several bans which restrict the refrigerants that can be used in specific types of new RACHP equipment. Bans on servicing R-404A systems in medium and large sized supermarket and industrial systems as of 2020. New rules on leak prevention and mandatory leak testing. Industrial refrigeration equipment In response to these new rules, many operating in the RACHP sector have introduced lower-GWP equipment. For instance, in the small-medium building air conditioning market, ultra-low GWP (<10) equipment is now an available option. Whilst the sector is committed to lowering its carbon footprint and has made good progress to date, the target of achieving a zero GWP by 2030 seems slightly unrealistic for a number of reasons. Whilst there is continuous improvement to RACHP equipment, an issue is the long life span of many products. For instance, some industrial refrigeration equipment typically has a life span of 30+ years; which means that approximately half of the industrial refrigeration equipment currently in use could remain so until 2030 and beyond. Reducing environmental impact The replacement of existing equipment is constrained by the equipment’s lifecycle The replacement of existing equipment is constrained by the equipment’s lifecycle, therefore, assuming that there is no premature retirement or retrofitting of the existing equipment, then implementing new alternatives could take decades, potentially. In terms of reducing environmental impact, the industry is reliant on the development of new technology, and manufacturers implementing that technology in the design of new equipment, to provide low-GWP alternatives. We are constrained by the rate at which manufacturers can bring these new products to market. The RACHP sector is also complex and contains an array of sub-sectors. The rate of progress in developing products with lower GWP varies considerably by sub-sector. For example, in the refrigeration sector, in commercial and retail applications where condensing units are used, the progress in lowering GWP is proving to be very slow. Variable refrigerant flow However, when it comes to small-sealed units, on the contrary, an impressive range of new low-GWP products have been brought to market. We can see a similar story in the air conditioning sector, where progress on lowering GWP is rather slow when it comes to large variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and large-ducted units; whereas for water chillers, they are making excellent progress. GWP rating may not be the key consideration in choosing a suitable product In the RACHP sector, there isn’t a one-size-fits-all product. Different equipment is required for different applications. For example, where RACHP systems are located in areas with public occupancy (e.g., retailers), public safety becomes a key concern, and would therefore limit our product choice, as well as the refrigerant type which could be used. Therefore, GWP rating may not be the key consideration in choosing a suitable product, it’s about selecting the right equipment for the application. Providing thermodynamic properties When it comes to RACHP equipment, there is a huge variance in temperature levels. In refrigeration, equipment temperature ranges from 0°C to 5°C for chilled food, and -15°C to -40°C for frozen food. In air-conditioning, the temperature typically ranges between 10°C to 20°Cii. These significant variations in temperature levels require a range of refrigerants to be available, to provide the thermodynamic properties to suit the specific application. It is worth noting here that not all have low GWP ratings. Despite stating that some of the targets are unrealistic, I do however believe that as an industry, we can collectively work together to make a difference to our planet. Maximum gas recovery Here are a few practical ways we can help to lower our carbon emissions: Use low GWP alternative refrigerants in new equipment – This is the key to success in the long term. As I explained previously, the long lifecycle of some of the equipment means that it will potentially be many years before the existing repository of HFCs is completely obsolete. However, it is a realistic goal that by 2050, the current generation of high-GWP HFCs could be replaced with low-GWP alternatives. Recover F-Gases from equipment - Old equipment reaching end-of-life contains HFCs. It is illegal to vent these HFCs into the atmosphere. The F-Gas Regulation has a mandatory requirement for the old HFC to be recovered. This refrigerant should be reprocessed, recycled and reused. Although this does not directly reduce F-Gas emissions in the short term, it does encourage maximum gas recovery. Leakage-Detection systems Reduce the usage of HFCs in existing equipment - Interestingly, a large proportion of total HFC consumption is actually to top-up leaks from existing equipment. If we could make advances in the area of leak-prevention, through further development of leakage-detection systems, this would reduce the volumes of HFC inadvertently entering the atmosphere. I’d also advise businesses to regularly undertake leak testing and to keep records. The world needs the entire HVAC industry to lead and drive the change required to reduce our carbon footprint. We must champion the solutions for the climate change crisis. Equally, businesses have a responsibility to ensure they remain F-Gas compliant and that their air conditioning and refrigeration systems continue to work at peak efficiency.
In the coming decades, the government plans to phase out gas and oil boilers and replace them with renewable heating systems. To make this possible, to give us a shot of achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, more people need to train as renewable heating installers. But when you were a teenager, if old people like Boris Johnson or George Eustice had told you that you ‘should’ choose a certain career, would you have listened? No, me neither. Yes, there will be plenty of environmentally motivated young people looking for a career that will make a difference in the world, but we cannot expect those people to carry the weight of the task ahead. Addressing the need for renewable installers The government has pledged to install 600,000 heat pumps per year in UK homes by 2028. It is an ambitious target, not least because there are currently not enough certified heat pump installers to meet expected demand. For example, at Boiler Guide, we are receiving 250% more heat pump enquiries than we were just 12 months ago. The Environment Audit Committee has warned that the UK is unlikely to achieve its net-zero carbon targets for all homes by 2050, without significant recruitment incentives for heat pump installers. Becoming an asset to the government’s ‘Green Revolution’ One route to success is for existing boiler engineers to up their skill in renewable technology One route to success is for existing boiler engineers to up their skill in renewable technology. This will certainly have a big part to play, as these people already have many transferable skills that will make them an asset to the government’s ‘Green Revolution’. However, given that more than half of Gas Safe-registered engineers are due to retire in the next decade, this is not a long term solution to growing the renewable sector. Younger generation to define the future of heating The second and more effective option would be for more young people and school leavers to choose a career in renewable heating. Of course, we cannot expect young people to make their career choice based on the fact that the government has targets. To strengthen the renewable industry’s frontlines, we need to speak directly to school leavers and young people, and to explain why a career in renewable heating could be a great choice for them on a personal level, as well as the planet. Here are some of the most compelling reasons why a young person should consider a career as a renewable installer. Renewable heating is the future From 2025, gas boilers will not be installed in newly built homes, and low carbon heating systems will need to be incorporated into properties as standard. Every existing home in the UK needs a heating system, and as fossil fuel boilers are phased out over the next 30 years, the renewable sector (including air source and ground source heat pumps, solar thermal, biomass boilers) will continue to grow. Heating installers are essential workers Young people should consider that during COVID-19, heating engineers were deemed, essential workers A major consideration for anyone choosing a career is whether the industry that they have chosen will provide them with long-term security, and the renewable heating industry certainly has that in its favor. To illustrate this point, young people should consider that during the COVID-19 pandemic, heating engineers were deemed, essential workers. Even when the country’s social and economic activities were halted, heating engineers were still needed. Renewable technologies are diverse While gas and oil boilers have dominated the heating landscape for many years, this is changing. In the next 30 years, it is likely that different properties will need different renewable heating systems, including plenty of hybrid systems, so the career promises plenty of variety and opportunities to diversify. In the future, a heating installer may be able to work not just with a boiler, but also with heat pumps, biomass, and solar. The more renewable technologies a person can install, repair, and service, the more varied, interesting, and lucrative their career will be. Renewable heating installers are in demand Because renewable heating installers, particularly air source heat pump installers, are in great demand at the moment, it is a great time for young ambitious people to be entering the industry. By getting started now as the industry is still blooming, they have the chance to corner the market in their area, and establish a positive reputation. Self-employment opportunity for renewable heating installers Renewable heating installers have the opportunity to start their own business and may work alone or with others Renewable heating installers have the opportunity to start their own business and may work alone or with others. This means that they will be in charge of their own hours, the projects they take on, and to an extent, how much money they earn. With the right business skills alongside technical knowledge, self-employment can be rewarding in multiple ways. However, for the many people that feel more secure when they are employed by a company and working with others, the industry could be ideal for them too. Renewable heating installers can be employed and they often work alongside other tradespeople, and as part of larger building projects. Many people cannot imagine a career that involves sitting in an office all day, every day. For people who enjoy being physically active, getting outside, meeting new people, and solving different problems every day, becoming a renewable heating installer is ideal. How to become a renewable heating installer There are several stages to becoming a renewable heating installer, and the training required obviously varies depending on the technology, the training provider, and the individual’s skill/experience. For example, a school leaver might begin by achieving NVQ Level 2 in Plumbing and Heating (or equivalent), as well as Water Regulations/Byelaws, Energy Efficiency Certificates, and G3 Qualifications. The NVQ typically takes around 1 year to complete alongside a practical apprenticeship. Renewable heating educational courses With that foundation, they can then move on to study Low Temperature Heating and Hot Water Systems (typically a 2-day course), a Heat Pump Foundation Course (2-day course), followed by a 1-day course specific to the type of heat pump they wish to install, i.e., air or ground source. Finally, renewable heating installers need to become accredited by the Micro-generation Certification Scheme (MCS), or an equivalent competency scheme.
Portable air conditioners have become a popular summertime cooling solution, valued for their easy, non-intrusive installation, fast set up, and the ability to easily store them away after the summer season ends. There is no end to the possible applications for a portable unit. Bedrooms, sunrooms, workout rooms, garages and other areas where relief is needed from the sweltering summer months are a great place to use a portable AC. Even homeowners with central AC will be glad to have one of these units on hand when the central AC breaks down during a summer heat wave and the first available service call is several days away. Ready to shop for a portable? Here are some factors to keep in mind when choosing a portable unit. As with any other air conditioner, one needs to know the square footage of the space they want to cool. Most portables will list a recommended square footage for the unit’s capacity. Portable air conditioners Single hose or dual hose portable? Getting the right BTU capacity for the space is critical. One will find several models rated for areas up to 500 square feet. Keep in mind that a space that has multiple sun-exposed windows, a heat producing appliance, or routinely has multiple occupants will have added heat load. If any of these conditions are present, one will want added BTUs to stay cool. Portable air conditioners are either single hose or dual hose design. Single hose models are faster to set up and may have built-in hose storage, so they are easily stored away once the season ends. They’re a great choice for spot cooling or in areas that have moderate summers. However, single hose models, by design, must intake and exhaust air through the same hose. Warm outside air is mixed in with indoor air and over time will produce a ‘warming effect’ if outdoor temperatures are extremely high (above 950 F). permanent cooling solution Is there a window to vent air to the outdoors? The kit has either one or two expandable hoses, and a frame that fits into the window with knockouts for the hose On two-hose portable models, one of the two hoses is dedicated to removing heat (exhaust) and expelling it outside. Intake air comes from the room that is being conditioned so the unit will maintain comfort even in extreme heat. Dual hose portable air conditioners will cool more quickly and efficiently. Dual hose portables are a great choice for all climates and are even suitable if one will be using the unit as a permanent cooling solution. Portable air conditioners must be vented to the outdoors. The units come with a window installation kit. The kit has either one or two expandable hoses, and a frame that fits into the window with knockouts for the hose(s). The hose kit will install into most standard windows. The hoses snap or twist and lock into the kit frame and into the back of the unit. Most flexible hoses can extend from 24-60 inches. installation kit hoses Is there a proper electrical outlet near the window? Venting through a drop ceiling may be an option in certain circumstances, however additional hose(s) may be necessary to reach ceiling height. One will also want to make sure the ceiling opening is well sealed to maintain proper cooling and venting of hot air. Portable units will plug into a standard 115v wall outlet, but one will want to make sure the wall outlet is close enough to the window so the power cord of the unit will reach the outlet, and the unit remains close enough to the window to utilize the installation kit hoses. Otherwise, one will have to hire a qualified electrician to install the outlet. Typical power cords are 6-7 feet in length.
Unmatched for quality, ease and control, Friedrich’s new 2019 smart models have integrated Wi-Fi control through Friedrich Connect™, and are voice command compatible. From the commercial-grade, 20-gauge steel cabinet and fully enclosed fan motors to its unrivaled QuietMaster technology, Kühl represents a new standard in room air conditioners. 6,000 - 35,000 Btu/hr. Cooling only, heat pumps and cooling + electric heat models. Friedrichs Kühl's quiet design, superior construction and integrated Wi-Fi with voice command make it the most advanced room air conditioner on the market. Units are available in 6,000 - 35,000 Btu/hr in cooling only, heat pumps, and cooling + electric heat models. ENERGY STAR® qualified models also available. The Friedrich Air Conditioning Difference Quietmaster® Technology. Engineered for quiet performance with superior components. As much as 45% quieter than competitor’s products. Steel inner wall and extra dense insulation blocks outdoor noise. Vibration isolating design and components reduce operating noise. Precision engineering delivers maximum airflow and air dispersion at low sound levels. Commercial Grade Quality & Durability Superior components and construction. Attention to every detail. Every aspect of Kühl is ultra-premium, outside and in, down to the tiniest component. Constructed with only the finest-quality materials, Kühl is extremely durable and designed to withstand tough use in virtually any commercial setting. Dual filtration technology Kühl units are designed with dual filtration technology to fill the home with cleaner indoor air. A washable antimicrobial air filter and check filter reminder will help one maintain that fresh clean air feel. Earth Friendly Kühl units are designed with a slideout chassis for more permanent installation Friedrich’s commitment to environment-friendly cooling is shown in the Kühl. The unit is available in ENERGY STAR® qualified models, uses eco-friendly R-410A refrigerant in all models, and arrives in recyclable packaging. slideout chassis Kühl units are designed with a slideout chassis for more permanent installation and easier access for maintenance. Heavy-duty window installation hardware is included with Kühl units and an optional accessory for Kühl+ units. Smart Wi-Fi Control with Voice Command Home or away, one is in control with the Friedrich Connect™ App. Integrated Wi-Fi control from one’s smartphone and voice command compatible. New intuitive platform. Simplified 7-day programmability. With one’s advanced grouping program, one can control multiple units to work independently or as a single system. One can even invite other users to manage one or more of the units.
Traditionally, portable cooling technology has been seen as a quick fix to immediate cooling needs. If a customer’s air conditioner went out in the busyness of summer, portable cooling could keep the customer comfortable until a technician could arrive at their home. Such needs and uses for portable cooling still exist, but over the past few years, portable cooling has increasingly developed as a solution for unique cooling needs. Manufacturers are saying this trend will continue. Misty Wilburn, Marketing Manager for Portacool, said that the market’s renewed interested in employee safety and productivity is driving further demand for portable cooling solutions. portable evaporative cooling From a safety standpoint, employers are looking for solutions that reduce heat stress and keep their employees cool" “From a safety standpoint, employers are looking for solutions that reduce heat stress and keep their employees cool,” she said. She explained that the industry is seeing a large shift surrounding employee safety. The California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) has led this charge by putting regulations in place regarding indoor and outdoor working conditions and will likely be followed by other states. “For operations that can’t use conventional a/c because of cost or efficiency, portable evaporative cooling - in setting up cool-down stations - can be key to meeting a lot of those regulations,” she said. In addition to this, she said that companies will be able to attract and keep the best employees if they provide a great work environment. open or closed environment “Offering those portable cooling areas can keep up focus and morale, which overall increases the profitability of your workforce,” she said. Wilburn explained that contractors can offer this solution as one that will do the most for their customers while also being conscious of cost. When choosing portable systems for their customers, Wilburn advised contractors to take note of the size of the space that needs to be cooled, the number of employees, electrical options, presence of a water supply, and whether it is an open or closed environment. multiple large coolers “By strategically positioning multiple large coolers, you can cool an entire area where you have lots of employees working,” she said. “If you want to spot cool an area and take the product wherever the work takes you, using one single smaller cooler might be the better option.” In agriculture, portable cooling has been used to cool individual stalls, especially for show animals All in all, she told contractors that it is important to choose a product that is as versatile as possible for the work environments the customers will find themselves in. Contractors should ensure the cooler is a plug-and-play model that can be set up with little technical skill needed. The degree of maintenance required is also important, as well as the expected lifespan of the equipment. Contractors should widen their view of portable cooling applications, too. Portable as Supplemental Cooling “Evaporative cooling is effective in other applications such as farm agriculture, patios, gyms, outdoor venues, events, sports sidelines, offshore platforms, retail stores, rental car pickup facilities, airports, beer gardens, and fast food lines for outdoor employees,” she said. In agriculture, portable cooling has been used to cool individual stalls, especially for show animals. “Is it dependable?” said Brittany Calderon, Product Manager for Friedrich Air. “Is it quiet? Is it energy-efficient? Those are the three main things that we hear our customers looking for. And of course, cost is always a factor.” Portable cooling can be used to keep areas of a home comfortable when the main air conditioning unit goes out. Applications for Portable Cooling “We recommend that contractors all keep a portable in the back of their truck to allow for supplemental cooling,” she said. “If somebody’s a/c goes out and they need to order a part, it’s going to take a few days. They can leave one of those portables at that customer’s house and everybody’s happy.” She said that portable cooling is often used to supplement other cooling systems Calderon said that a dual-hose portable air conditioner offers a really good solution for customer’s needs; it’s designed to cool areas faster, more efficiently, and without a complicated installation process. She said that portable cooling is often used to supplement other cooling systems. For example, 2019 had a relatively mild summer in the Northeast, and Friedrich saw interest grow in portable cooling - equipment that people could stow away in a closet when not in use. electrical equipment rooms Mike Renier, Vice President of Sales for KwiKool, said that customers are realizing that portable cooling can be used for specific, unique applications, and contractors should keep that in mind. “As the market has evolved, customers have gotten more demanding and not less,” he said. “And what that boils down to is that they’re looking for tailor-made solutions to application problems.” Some examples of this, he said, include server rooms, electrical equipment rooms, and other high-tech areas where heat-generating equipment needs to be kept cool. These rooms generally have permanent systems in place to cool the equipment; however, these mechanical systems run the risk of occasional failure when components break. redundant permanent systems The technology, called Biocool, is designed for use in laboratories and hospitals “Customers don’t want to have to spend a tremendous amount of money having redundant permanent systems in place,” Renier said. “As an alternative, they can look to portables to supply the duplicated air conditioning.” To operate as intended, such portable equipment will need to have high-efficiency, sensible capacity that can match the heat load, which contractors should look for. A portable cooler with a 1-ton heat load, he explained, will not be able to cool a room with a 5-ton heat load. Portable technology should always be used with the end goal in mind. For example, KwiKool has developed a portable cooler with a hospital-grade HEPA filter and UV light system. The technology, called Biocool, is designed for use in laboratories and hospitals. temporary air conditioning In other applications, cooled air must be moved long distances before it can be exhausted. Portable coolers, when properly designed to pump air further distances, can be temporarily installed in attics. On hot summer days, when attic temperatures can exceed safe temperatures, a portable cooler can be used to keep the heat tolerable for any employees working in that space. Renier reminded contractors that there is a big division between residential and commercial portable cooling products. “If all you want is some cheap, temporary air conditioning for a bedroom, those personal air conditioners are great,” he said. “But if you want to bring the serious capacity for a high-profile application, don’t buy the cheap stuff. It won’t work. You’re getting what you pay for.”
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