Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps (PTHP) - Expert Commentary

United Kingdom Leading The Fight Against Legionella Bacteria
United Kingdom Leading The Fight Against Legionella Bacteria

It is now more common to read about cases of Legionnaires’ disease in the media than ever before, with outbreaks regularly being reported in cities around the world, all the time. Many of these cases are attributed to contamination of domestic systems, showers and spas, but some are the result of operating cooling towers. While this problem is not new, with the first reported case in Philadelphia, in 1976, the United Kingdom (UK) has been at the forefront in leading the battle with Legionnaires’ disease, which has a mortality rate of approximately 10%. Advise on use of cooling systems The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) worked with manufacturers and industry experts, to issue the Approved Code of Practice L8 in 1991, which advised manufacturers, owners, operators and service providers on the use of cooling systems (and domestic water systems) and their safe operation, with regards to Legionella bacteria. From the data available via the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, in their Annual Epidemiological Report 2018, there were 10,672 cases of Legionnaires’ disease reported across Europe. Germany, France, Italy and Spain accounted for 71% of the cases, with UK cases only accounting for 5%. Outbreaks in the United Kingdom, in fact, are becoming more and more infrequent, which has led to the question, why is this not the case elsewhere? Countering the risk of Legionella bacteria In the UK, the HSE has led the drive to reduce the incidence of Legionella bacteria in water systems In the UK, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has led the drive to reduce the incidence of Legionella bacteria in water systems, with their two documents, ACoP-L8 and more recently, HSG274 Pt1. This has seen the numbers of cases within the UK become the lowest of the main manufacturing nations of Europe. Legionella bacteria exist in fresh water, so can be introduced into cooling systems through the make-up water line, if the water is not treated. Added to that, when given the right conditions - water temperatures between 20 °C and 45 °C, stagnation in pipes, accumulation of dirt or scale, sunlight, and a food source - it can multiply to dangerous levels within a water system. When contaminated water is introduced into a stream of air, the Legionella bacteria can become airborne, which is known as drift and if this is inhaled, it can become a serious risk to health. Tackling Legionella bacteria in cooling systems There are several ways of tackling the issue of legionella bacteria in cooling systems and these should be used in conjunction with each other, so as to comply with the Health and Safety Executive’s guidance. The cooling system (the cooling tower and everything associated with it) should be designed, so that risks of bacterial growth are minimized. This covers actions, such as the removal of dead-legs in the pipework, designing the system, so that it is easy to clean and maintain, using materials of construction that are not favorable to bacterial growth, and minimizing the release of drift. Legionella can be introduced from the water inlet, so treatment of the system is needed. This will typically involve dosing the system with biocides that kill the bacteria, corrosion inhibitors to limit corrosion (which can act as a food source) and scale inhibitors, which prevent build-up that provides a protective layer and prevents the biocides from working effectively. Physical maintenance is crucial, and comes in the form of cleaning debris and ensuring contamination is removed from the system and the heat exchange media. It also involves reviewing the system, to ensure that the correct materials are installed, in order to minimize the risk of Legionella and that they are working correctly. Preventative measures, such as painting the internals of systems can also help stop process water coming into contact with the corrosion and can extend the life of the system. Legionnaires’ disease, a very real threat Keeping cooling equipment operating safely is not the same as making sure the equipment operates effectively. Owners of cooling systems should not be complacent, with keeping their equipment clean and maintained, as bacteria is still a very real possibility in cooling systems. Legionella bacteria is naturally present in water and in the right conditions can proliferate, so it is important to minimize the risk of this occurring, by implementing controls in the form of good system design, effective water treatment and monitoring, cleaning and maintenance of the system, using qualified suppliers. If these measures are followed, the control of Legionella bacteria is achievable and organizations will be on their way to becoming responsible users of cooling systems, and in helping to keep the United Kingdom as the pioneers in the fight against Legionnaires’ disease.

The Low-Carbon Heating Toolbox: Making The Case Beyond Heat Pumps
The Low-Carbon Heating Toolbox: Making The Case Beyond Heat Pumps

At the moment, it seems as though a day rarely goes by without low-carbon heating hitting the headlines. Whether it is reports of ‘revamping’ the Clean Heat Grant, to include a ‘boiler scrappage’ scheme, which may offer home owners up to £7000 to make the switch to a low-carbon alternative, to speculation that the Prime Minister is under pressure to push back the 2035 ban on gas boilers, the debate on how and when the low-carbon heating revolution will happen is ongoing. BEIS Hydrogen Strategy We have also seen the recently published, Hydrogen Strategy from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) that cements its plans to develop technologies that allow hydrogen-powered heating in people’s homes. In addition to this, the Future Homes Task Force, including some of the United Kingdom’s largest property developers, regulators, suppliers and environmental groups, have agreed to the sector-wide Future Homes Delivery Plan, to build homes that are ‘zero-carbon ready’ and sustainable by 2025. Alternative energy, key to hitting net zero targets by 2050 What is also clear is that tackling the decarbonization of heat is not a one-technology solution According to the Climate Change Committee, in a report published in December 2020, the UK’s homes are responsible for around 15 percent of emissions. As a result, the need to install alternatives to traditional fossil fuel heating systems will be crucial, to hitting our net zero targets, by 2050. This will be the key challenge that the delayed Heat and Buildings Strategy, now due in the autumn season, will need to address. Therefore, what is also clear is that tackling the decarbonization of heat is not a one-technology solution. Target to install air source heat pumps in UK homes So far, much of the focus has been on heat pumps, as the UK Government has set an ambitious target of installing 600,000 air source heat pumps (ASHPs) in UK homes each year, by 2028. However, there are a number of challenges to achieve this goal, as house builders will need convincing to install heat pumps in new builds, and home owners and landlords will need convincing to retrofit older properties. Cost, a key issue in air source heat pumps installation Cost will also be a key issue, even with a government grant and ASHPs can be complex to install. They can also emit noise that breaches legal limits, if placed too close to a neighboring property. In addition, they won’t be suitable for all properties, as the needs of a 4-bedroom new build home are very different to a 1970s apartment, a Victorian-era terrace, a social housing property or an off-grid home. Computer-controlled infrared heating (CCIR) One of the alternatives is computer-controlled infrared heating, which addresses many of the issues faced by ASHPs Taking all of these challenges into account, BEIS has said that it is ‘uncertain’ what the ‘optimal solution’ is, when it comes to low-carbon heating. Certainly, there is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution for heating the UK’s homes, which is why it is vital that house builders, landlords, contractors, installers and developers explore the full range of low-carbon heating technologies that are available today. There are alternatives that can provide benefits that are much more likely to appeal to a wider range of end-user audiences. One of the alternatives is computer-controlled infrared heating (CCIR), which addresses many of the issues faced by ASHPs. High-performance heating Firstly, infrared is an intrinsically more effective source of heat than conventional convection heating, because it heats the material within a room, rather than the air, which can escape from doors and windows. CCIR systems also outperform many other low-carbon technologies, because the software within each panel constantly monitors each individual room and learns about the energy storage characteristics within it, adjusting its routine to maintain the ambient temperature within the room, maximizing its performance and using fewer units of energy, in comparison to a traditional heating system. KERS water heating system This keeps energy bills low, and meets increasing sustainability standards. Figures show that, out of 29 million homes in the United Kingdom, 19 million have an EPC lower than C. Together with Ambion Heating’s KERS water heating system, inefficient properties can be brought up to a minimum EPC C. CCIR also costs less to install than many other low-carbon heating alternatives CCIR also costs less to install than many other low-carbon heating alternatives. In a typical three-bedroom house, for example, the estimated cost of installing a CCIR system is around £6,000, compared to nearly £10,500 for an ASHP. They are also easy to install, whether they’re being retrofitted into an existing building or installed within a new build, because they can simply be wired into the mains, by a qualified electrician. Enhanced comfort and reduced emissions The heat CCIR provides feels more natural and comfortable, once the fabric of the room is saturated with energy, and it emits a comfortable, radiant heat. It also reduces humidity, as well as improves the air quality within a building, reducing the amount of circulating dust. In fact, in an independent performance review, CCIR provided the same levels of comfort within a room, using 60% less energy than a standard electric convection system, and on a par with ASHPs. Heating solutions for a low-carbon future While there is a real urgency, when it comes to decarbonizing heat, it’s vital to consider which technologies offer the most benefits to the end user. By understanding and investigating all of the alternatives to gas central heating, such as CCIR, the benefits will not only be felt in the short term, they are a sustainable solution for the longer term.

BEIS Hydrogen Strategy, Reaction From Baxi Heating
BEIS Hydrogen Strategy, Reaction From Baxi Heating

The energy transition is upon us and we are shifting today’s energy use to low and zero carbon sources. The way in which we heat and provide hot water to our homes and businesses will change, and we are developing technologies that will support this transition. A bold and pragmatic policy framework will encourage investment and drive change. BEIS Hydrogen Strategy We, therefore, welcome the publication of the Hydrogen Strategy from the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS). This important document details the role and vision for clean hydrogen deployment at scale, in the United Kingdom, building upon the ambitions in last year’s 10 Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution. As an energy carrier, hydrogen has many uses that will help to decarbonize heating, transport and industry. We, therefore, welcome the government’s assurance to the public that hydrogen can be made as safe as natural gas. UK Government’s Contract for Difference The availability of low-cost hydrogen at scale is a key enabler of the deployment of hydrogen for heat Alongside the BEIS Strategy, the UK Government is publishing its proposed business model for supporting hydrogen production, in the form of a Contract for Difference. This approach has been utilized successfully for offshore wind and will enable the sector to invest in early-stage projects, and reduce the cost of hydrogen. The availability of low-cost hydrogen at scale is a key enabler of the deployment of hydrogen for heat. We believe, there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution, and a whole range of heating technologies will need to be deployed for a range of properties. Baxi Heating, as part of BDR Thermea Group, is at the forefront of developing clean heating solutions, including our ground-breaking development of hydrogen boilers. Hydrogen-ready boilers from 2025 Our work with the Hy4Heat project and associated demonstration sites in the UK show technical feasibility of this solution. We believe the government should act upon advice from the Climate Change Committee and other sources advocating a mandate that all boiler sales from 2025 should be hydrogen-ready, in order to help pre-populate a swathe of the housing stock, ready for a future conversion. Technology, energy efficiency and business models are all bit parts in the wider picture. Skilled installers and contractors will be utterly essential to success, so we are glad to see the announcement of a hydrogen sector development action plan in early 2022, setting out how the government will support companies to secure supply chain opportunities, skills and jobs in hydrogen. UK Heat and Buildings Strategy Following the Hydrogen Strategy, we look forward to several important publications in the lead up to the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26), including consultations on the role for hydrogen-ready appliances, off gas grid heating measures and the UK Heat and Buildings Strategy.

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TZOA Becomes HAVEN To Provide An Entirely Fresh Approach To Air Quality Management
TZOA Becomes HAVEN To Provide An Entirely Fresh Approach To Air Quality Management

TZOA pioneers of smart air quality technology for HVAC professionals and their homeowner customers, becomes HAVEN and announces the launch of the HAVEN central air controller. Along with the bold new look and brand comes an entirely fresh approach to air quality management. Combined with the existing HAVEN central air monitor, the HAVEN controller builds an ecosystem that makes any HVAC system smarter and homes healthier by detecting harmful pollutants and automatically circulating fresh air within the home. Central HVAC systems HVAC systems are typically used for comfort to heat and cool the home. Recent environmental issues such as heatwaves and forest fires, and health concerns such as COVID-19, have increased awareness of the need for improved air quality (IAQ) and led to a surge of interest in room air purifiers. HAVEN’s air purifying solution manages the whole home using the existing central HVAC systems Compared with other products that are loud, inefficient and take up living space, HAVEN’s air purifying solution automatically manages the whole home using the existing central HVAC systems to better address these concerns. Introduced in 2020, the HAVEN central air monitor is unlike other IAQ devices as it is the only system mounted directly within the duct, where it can monitor airborne pollutants across the entire home. Large sized homes It combines the diagnostic power of miniaturized, research-grade particulate sensing lasers and chemical sensors to detect levels of airborne contaminants such as dust, pollen, pet dander, odors, and materials off-gassing. The addition of the HAVEN central air controller allows for the HAVEN system to automatically control an HVAC system and ancillary equipment, taking action and responding by optimizing filtration, ventilation, or humidity levels on-demand. “Room air purifiers are great for cleaning small spaces such as apartments, yet few know that for average to large sized homes, our existing HVAC systems are the best method for circulating the air and capturing contaminants," explained Kevin Hart, CEO and Founder of HAVEN. Additional software services The HAVEN ecosystem is the first to monitor airflow and controls filtration, ventilation and humidity “We developed the HAVEN brand and ecosystem to allow any HVAC system to deliver clean air, as well as comfort. Today, more than ever, it is essential your home is safe, healthy, and free of pollutants that can harm your family. Our new name, look and feel reflects our fresh approach to air quality management, and we look forward to bringing it into millions of homes in North America.” Over the coming year, HAVEN will expand its ecosystem and develop more advanced algorithms and additional software services for Homeowners and HVAC professionals. It also plans to expand its sales channel. The flow of air within the home is the most important factor in improving air quality. The HAVEN ecosystem is the first to monitor airflow and controls filtration, ventilation and humidity, the three critical pillars that air movement enables. Detecting harmful particles HAVEN improves the air even further by avoiding the build-up of hyper-local airborne contamination caused by stagnant air, and leverages the proven IAQ approach of dilution and dispersion. Already deployed in thousands of homes, the HAVEN Monitor uses the ‘arteries’ of the home, aka ductwork, to capture an understanding of how the indoor environment is doing. It uses individually calibrated lasers that scatter light across the moving air within the duct to detect harmful particles known as PM2.5. HAVEN improves the air even further by avoiding the build-up of hyper-local airborne contamination It monitors air pollution and comfort levels, including chemicals known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), relative humidity, air velocity, and temperature to indicate whether a home needs improved filtration, ventilation or humidity control. Information is delivered to homeowners via the HAVEN IAQ app and to HVAC professionals via the HAVEN Pro web portal. Monitoring air quality Transmitted via WIFI, the app provides 24/7 air quality insights and historical data. The app also provides notifications and alerts as well as recommendations such as IAQ-friendly cleaning tips. In addition, it has an in-app ‘Contact your HAVEN Pro’ function to connect with technicians to address any major concerns, such as upgrading filters during wildfire events. The web portal allows HVAC professionals to monitor air quality for multiple customers within a single dashboard. Perfect for service/maintenance contracts, it provides individually tailored reports and ongoing touchpoints with customers to foster trust and long-term sales. The HAVEN Controller works in harmony with the monitor to intelligently automate and adjust HVAC equipment when necessary. Connected to specific terminals of the HVAC system, it enables the professional installer or homeowner to use the data from the monitor to create custom circulation schedules. Indoor air pollution This ensures air is circulated at specific times when particulate matter may increase This ensures air is circulated at specific times when particulate matter may increase and can intuitively trigger equipment when an air quality issue is identified: e.g activate filtration when cooking particles are detected, or turn on ventilation when high VOCs are detected. Using the data, a contractor can also assess the need for equipment maintenance to ensure optimal performance. Considering 90% of people’s time is spent indoors, and that indoor air pollution is typically 2- 5 times worse than pollution outside, it is not a surprise there has been a surge in demand for IAQ devices and purifiers. Providing additional services HAVEN has a different approach to standalone devices that can only impact a single room. By building an ecosystem, it provides a solution throughout the entire home. In addition, through its HAVEN Pro offering, the company provides HVAC professionals with platforms to generate increased sales and provide additional services to customers. The HAVEN ecosystem is now available through HVAC contractors across the U.S. and Canada. HAVEN products are carried by some of the largest HVAC distributors including Goodman, Amana & Daikin, Steven’s Equipment Supply, East Coast Metals, Crescent Parts & Equipment, TruTech Tools.

HVAC Industry Manufacturers To Introduce Six Latest Products For The Heat Pump Market
HVAC Industry Manufacturers To Introduce Six Latest Products For The Heat Pump Market

Manufacturers continue to make improvements in heat-pump technology, including higher efficiencies, contractor-friendly designs, and innovative extras like two-stage compressors that allow them to run at lower speeds and cut down energy use and homeowners’ bills. Below is a sampling of six of the latest products to hit the heat pump market. Nortek Global HVAC introduced the W-Series of air conditioning and heat pump equipment for residential and light commercial applications, completing its redesign of Gibson®, NuTone®, and Frigidaire® branded 1.5- to 5-ton, single-phase air conditioning units and heat pumps. The redesign offers contractors a ‘good-better-best’ strategy (the premium F-Series, the mid-range E-Series, and the economically-priced W-Series) to accommodate varying consumer price ranges. Coil-Protecting wire guard The W-Series heat pump is available in 14- and 16-SEER models. Standard features include Copeland scroll compressors and a liquid line filter-drier for field installation in an accessible position to facilitate easy periodic change-outs. It also has a coil-protecting wire guard that adds cabinet structural integrity and holds a plastic mesh in place to safeguard against hail and accidental contact damage, plus an anti-corrosive polymer drain pan with more drainage holes to eliminate potential standing water. On the unit’s exterior cabinet, above the refrigerant access port, is a weather-proof QR code called ‘Charge Me’ that can be scanned to access Nortek’s charge assist tool. “The new W-series of heat pumps recently introduced by Gibson, Frigidaire, and NuTone features a high-tech way to charge,” said Dave Garvin, product manager, Nortek Global HVAC. Variable Speed Heat Pump Rheem’s next generation Prestige® heat pump harnesses the power of the new EcoNet Smart Thermostat “The proprietary website helps account for subcooling, fixed orifices, thermostatic expansion valves, ambient temperature at time of charging, lineset length, and other variables that can trip up contractors when charging any heat pump brand.” The Rheem® Prestige® Series EcoNet®-Enabled Variable Speed Heat Pump features a contractor-friendly design, which means expanded valve space and triple service access, for fast and easy install and repairs. Corner-service access allows optimal access to internal components, while individual louver panels speed coil cleaning and cabinet reassembly. Plus, Rheem’s next generation Prestige® heat pump harnesses the power of the new EcoNet Smart Thermostat, which provides control, monitoring, and one-touch alert capability. Proper installation and reduced time “Rheem’s Prestige Heat Pump powered by our EcoNet Smart Thermostat keeps contractors in control,” said Ryan Teschner, product manager for Rheem Mfg. “From real-time alerts and system notifications to a charge mode capability, which allows for proper installation and reduced time on the job, Rheem’s heat pump increases job site efficiencies and reduces labor costs for contractors.” The hybrid electric Voltex® from A. O. Smith has an energy factor (efficiency based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day) of 2.3, and is Energy Star® qualified. “Heat pump water heaters use electricity to pull heat from the surrounding air rather than generating their own heat,” said Brandon Stepanek, national field marketing manager at A. O. Smith. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions Carrier’s Hybrid Heat systems automatically switch between electric and gas heating “This means that they can be a logical choice for dedicated green home builders interested in enhancing energy efficiency. Because a heat pump water heater uses energy efficiently, it can save customers up to 10 percent on energy bills, which adds up to thousands of dollars over the life of the water heater,” he continued. “The significant reduction in electricity use also has a direct effect on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.” Carrier’s Performance™ Series heat pumps offer a range of efficiencies that start at 14 SEER and reach 17.5 SEER and up to 9.5 HSPF. Combining a gas furnace, an electric heat pump, and a compatible thermostat, Carrier’s Hybrid Heat systems automatically switch between electric and gas heating to optimize the efficiency of each fuel source, helping defend homeowners against utility cost fluctuations. They have Energy Star designation. Carrier indoor furnace “Our microtube coil technology saves space and provides lasting comfort with its corrosion-resistant construction,” the company stated. “In addition, some models include innovative extras, like a two-speed compressor for added benefits like higher efficiency and even, consistent comfort. When installed with a custom-matched Carrier indoor furnace or fan coil and a Côr® Wi-Fi® thermostat, our two-stage heat pumps can operate on low stage up to 80 percent of the time to keep airflow and temperatures even and consistent while adding humidity control during cooling operation.” Heating operation is rated down to minus 5˚F outdoor temperature Fujitsu General America Inc. recently debuted the RGLX Series, three medium-static pressure ducted indoor units for the single-zone Halcyon mini split line. They have sufficient static pressure to heat or cool a whole house. Heating operation is rated down to minus 5˚F outdoor temperature. The 12,000-, 18,000-, and 24,000-Btuh models are Energy Star qualified. V-Shaped heat exchanger Units are available in seven sizes ranging from 12,000 to 48,000 Btuh, with efficiency ratings up to 21.3 SEER. The evaporators are slim enough to fit most ceiling spaces, making them ideal for hidden installations, while the condensing units can be installed below a window or in a narrow space. The new models can be installed in applications that require static pressure up to 0.80 inches of water column and offer maximum piping lengths of up to 246 feet. A built-in drain pump with 33.5 feet of vertical lift comes standard. “The combination of the V-shaped heat exchanger, air stabilizer, and the energy-efficient DC fan motor results in high efficiency and quiet operation,” Fujitsu wrote in the product specs. Customized indoor comfort The Goodman GSZC18 Heat Pump features the next-generation Copeland Scroll™ two-stage compressor coupled with Goodman’s ComfortBridge® communicating technology to deliver up to 19 SEER and 10 HSPF performance. ComfortBridge ‘off-the-wall’ technology gives contractors more installation options and intelligent controls. It works with any thermostat, including single-stage ones. ComfortBridge constantly gathers data, making automatic adjustments for peak performance ComfortBridge constantly gathers data, making automatic adjustments for peak performance, using the minimum energy needed for consistent, customized indoor comfort. A companion CoolCloud™ app connects technicians wirelessly via Bluetooth to ComfortBridge. Advanced ComfortAlert™ Diagnostics constantly monitor the system, reducing failures and pinpointing trouble spots. “Our 18-SEER heat pumps provide high-efficiency, energy-saving indoor comfort with the ease of installation as compared to less sophisticated products,” said Cory Gottfredson, senior product manager, Outdoor Split Systems for Goodman. Compressor crankcase heater “We have incorporated ComfortBridge technology to optimize installation while allowing homeowners to use any thermostat. This truly enhances both operation and installation, freeing contractors from hassles and leaving money in the hands of homeowners where it belongs.” The scroll compressor inside the GSZC18 is designed with fewer moving parts, and the high-efficiency, two-speed electronically commutated condenser fan motor with advanced fan design provides quiet airflow. Other features include SmartShift® technology with short-cycle protection, a bi-flow liquid-line filter-drier, suction line accumulator, high- and low-pressure switches, coil and ambient temperature sensors, a transformer, compressor crankcase heater, high-capacity muffler, and a color-coded terminal strip for non-communicating set-up.

Making Of Goodman Manufacturing’s Indoor Comfort Units Featured On Built In America TV Show
Making Of Goodman Manufacturing’s Indoor Comfort Units Featured On Built In America TV Show

The Built In America television show is taking viewers deep inside one of the nation’s massive, new industrial facilities to witness how a $417 million investment in United States manufacturing is creating Goodman brand air conditioners and furnaces, along with up to 7,000 jobs. Within the doors of the world’s largest tilt wall building at the Texas Technology Park, the Built In America documentary, led by host John McCalmont, demonstrates the manufacturing magic of morphing hefty 15,000-pound coils of steel, aluminum and copper into Goodman brand heating and air conditioning units. Roving the sprawling 4 million-plus square-foot facility, McCalmont – in tow with Goodman Vice President of Manufacturing Joseph Campbell – follows the entire Goodman production process from stamping, brazing, assembly, painting, testing and more testing. McCalmont even chips in to help assemble several products. revolutionize heating and air conditioning industry The technological prowess showcased at the Texas Technology Park demonstrates how far Harold V. Goodman’s dream has come since he created his namesake company 43 years ago. Back then, Goodman said he wanted to “revolutionize the heating and air conditioning industry,” but even he might have found the scope of manufacturing capabilities at Texas Technology Park beyond his imagination. Built In America television celebrates cutting-edge companies that manufacture and assemble products in the United States. Goodman designs, engineers and assembles all of its indoor comfort products in the United States. According to Built In America, the series focuses on the history, job creation, education, business model, pride in workmanship and positive community impact of top companies and their hometowns. The show airs on The Fox Business Network (FBN) as sponsored segments to over 230 million viewers internationally.

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