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It is said that the COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the single biggest driving forces behind the digitalization of industries ever seen. And although not new within HVAC infrastructures – especially within the food retail environment where it has been rolled out extensively – remote management and automation of HVAC systems is increasingly being used to support supermarket responses to COVID-19. From air filtration through to dynamic scheduling, digitalization of HVAC within the food retail sector is going through something of a renaissance. Pre-COVID Digitalization Software solutions that use Internet of Things (IoT) technology to analyze data from HVAC infrastructures, for example, are common in food retail stores. These solutions work by monitoring mission critical aspects of HVAC systems, from simple temperature data through to complex asset monitoring. This data can then either be fed back to the retailer for them to perform their own analysis or, using more advanced IoT technology, can be used to enact automated HVAC outcomes. Software solutions that use IoT technology to analyze data from HVAC infrastructures are common in food retail stores From preventing HVAC asset’s overworking – and therefore expending too much energy – through to detecting the first stages of a fault and alerting the relevant maintenance engineers, automation has been shown to deliver numerous benefits. These combine to serve the retailer’s primary purposes; enhancing the consumers in-store experience, improving the bottom line and decreasing energy usage to lower carbon footprint. But not only is the digitalization of HVAC helping food retailers drive down costs and energy, advances in areas such as air filtration and dynamic scheduling have meant that it is also being seen as a potential solution to COVID-19 related issues. Filtering Out the Virus Air filtration is a primary focus when looking for ways to keep internal spaces free from pathogens. While not exactly a new feature for HVAC systems, food retailers have been increasingly working towards implementing or improving their existing air filtration techniques in their stores. The solution to keeping air clean and fresh is actually quite straightforward and relies on the same technology that many stores already use to monitor CO2. Advances in areas such as air filtration and dynamic scheduling have meant that HVAC is being seen as a potential solution to COVID-19 By connecting CO2 monitors to a central controls panel (the technical way of describing the place where all of the sensor data is collected and, in some cases, analyzed), sensors are able to detect the CO2 levels instore, signal if they begin to drift past a pre-determined base level, and automatically alert the HVAC systems to provide more fresh air into the store. This is a simple process of optimization. Additional sensors detect when fresh air is either too humid, hot or cold to be filtered into the store and rectify this by automatically adjusting the HVAC. Essentially, monitoring CO2 and air quality levels makes sure the air in a store is constantly fresh and filtered to keep the chances of airborne transmission as low as possible without causing the HVAC systems to expend any more energy than is necessary. Research has shown that COVID-19 spreads through small respiratory droplets that are released into the air from an infected person when coughing, talking or even breathing. Within a store environment therefore, where surface contamination and proximity to other people are likely to increase the chances of transmitting the virus, optimized fresh air flow to dilute indoor air is desirable. By detecting higher levels of CO2 within the air which in turn increases the chances of pathogens floating around, food retailers can automate their HVAC systems to filtrate the air and significantly reduce chances of transmission. Dynamic HVAC Response Air filtration isn’t the only way that food retailers are combining digitalization and HVAC systems to help them navigate the ‘new normal’. With store opening times continually changing, fewer people inside a store at any one time and staff performing additional and stricter clean regimes after hours, the requirements for optimum store temperature have moved from static to dynamic. Before the pandemic, HVAC systems would have to keep an average non-24 hour store at the optimum temperature for between say, 7am and 11pm, and would have to work a little harder to deliver more air into the store during the lunch time rush and post-work peaks – a mostly predictable routine. Research has shown that COVID-19 spreads through small respiratory droplets that are released into the air from an infected person Now, however, with adjusted store schedules and social distancing regulations, the footfall and peak traffic times have changed dramatically. Through digitally enabled remote management of HVAC temperatures and schedules, new schedules could be deployed across the estate at the touch of a button. Real-time monitoring of in-store temperatures and the volume of people inside also enables HVAC systems to run more efficiently by stopping them from filtering in more outside air than is necessary in a shop that contains fewer customers than normal. IoT solutions are ensuring HVAC infrastructures are running efficiently, saving energy, helping a retailer’s bottom line and most importantly, ensuring the comfort and safety of customers and colleagues. However, as retailers look for solutions to the challenges posed by the post-COVID landscape, digitalized HVAC is breathing fresh air into the industry. From improved air filtration to dynamic schedule monitoring, digitalized HVAC systems are proving to be an important tool in a food retailer’s arsenal as they navigate the new normal.
Effective heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems have always been part of maintaining a healthy building environment, and with the impact of COVID-19 and the unique way the virus is spread, it has never been more imperative that HVAC plays a vital role in keeping occupants of buildings safe, especially as people begin to return to the office and other commercial environments. COVID-19 has three known contamination routes. First of all, there is person-to-person transmission, which could be indirect too, if the virus travels from someone to a surface they have touched, which is then touched by another person. Then there is airborne transmission. The British Council for Offices (BCO)’s Thoughts on Office Design and Operation After COVID 19 document talks of large droplets, greater than 10 micrometres, “expelled by sneezing and coughing and in still air, typically within about 2 metres of the infected person.” But Dr Linsey Marr, the Charles P. Lunsford Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, speaking to the New Scientist says that people emit thousands of times more smaller droplets than larger ones. She thinks that it is these ones that infect people with COVID-19. Then there’s the third contamination route: faecal to oral whereby particles from the toilet can enter people’s respiritory systems when using WCs. Counteracting COVID-19 transmission There are several methods to counteract these routes of transmission. The risk of the virus spreading from person-to-person can be lessened where there is a focus on smart technology. This begins upon arrival at a building, with the use of touchless entry systems, for instance harnessing facial recognition technology. Once inside, staff could then be directed to an area of the office that isn’t already occupied via digital signage or an app. And instead of manually pressing a button, information from the employee’s ID pass about which floor they work on can be read by a card reader, activating the elevator. As for transmissions via surfaces, scientists have emphasized copper’s antibacterial properties, with COVID-19 surviving just a few hours on copper, compared with a number of days for steel or plastic. William Keevil, a senior microbiologist at the University of Southampton, has recently suggested that the UK is behind other countries in using this material on communal areas like handrails and doorknobs. Copper-based nickel would perform better than chrome in certain parts of the office too. The risk of the virus spreading from person-to-person can be lessened where there is a focus on smart technology To dilute airborne contamination, the Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers (CIBSE) recommends running ventilation systems at a higher flow rate. “This may require changes to C02 set points for both mechanical ventilation and automated windows,” it states in its COVID-19 Ventilation Guidance. Airborne Particles and the need for ventilation Chinese and American academics looking at outbreaks in the Chinese province of Zhejiang found that airborne transmission of the virus may have taken place in 48.3% of people in a badly ventilated office. Essentially to stop the spread of COVID-19, ventilation needs to be increased and more fresh air needs to be brought in. The risk of contamination via recirculated air can be mitigated with a higher level of filtration such as F9. This is a very fine system that will catch nanoparticles of 70nm but does involve greater energy use to overcome the resistance. The alternative is to keep these systems on for much longer – typically two hours before people arrive and then two hours after they leave. CIBSE’s COVID-19 report also states that, “Recirculation of air within a single room, where this is complemented by an outdoor air supply, is acceptable.” Getting abundant fresh air in the system is key. This could be as simple as just opening the windows. The BCO’s report goes so far as to say, “Actively use operable windows and openings to boost ventilation to occupied spaces as much as possible, even if this is at the expense of thermal comfort.” Fan coils and Chilled beams Getting abundant fresh air in the system is key The BCO also recommends that fan coils, which recirculate air locally in the occupied space, “should be frequently and thoroughly cleaned and where condensation occurs, drain pans and traps should be maintained frequently to prevent growth of bacteria and mold.” It is also a recommendation that HepVo traps are installed on condensate systems that drain into waste pipework. As far as chilled beams are concerned, CIBSE says that active chilled beams can be operated as normal, while with passive chilled beams there should be a good supply of air. I would be interested to see some further research on the performance of underfloor and low level air distribution. The lower velocities and laminar air flow associated with these systems causes less air turbulence, particularly in the zone where air is breathed. This would seem to have an obvious advantage in reducing the risk of virus spread in an office environment. Mixed Mode Ventilation The ‘mixed mode’ of ventilation will become more commonplace. When it is not high summer, the cooling can be turned off so windows can be opened. This could even eventually replace the familiar sealed building model. This system can happen automatically with sensors, after all, fresh air is good for people: There are several recent examples of this being done successfully, other building such as London Wall Place, have been designed future proofed for ‘mixed mode’ use to be adopted if this is preferred by a tenant. Meanwhile, to combat faecal-oral transmission, bathroom extraction fans need to be kept on high and again perhaps running the systems for 24 hours a day. Toilets that automatically shut and touchless flushes can also help to stop the spread of the virus. The same goes for anti-bacterial coatings on bathroom doors. Some of clients are considering motorized doors that are effectively ‘touch free’. Post-COVID Ventilation Strategies Toilets that automatically shut and touchless flushes can also help to stop the spread of the virus There is definitely set to be more access to outside air moving forward and there is a strong sustainability argument to be made for this method. However, some of the changes to ventilation strategies being deployed for a post-COVID world will inevitably have some compromises for carbon emissions. If systems are run at a higher rate and for longer, if not continuously, throughout the day then that has implications for a larger carbon footprint, as the buildings become less energy efficient. However, in the middle of a global pandemic, it’s a price worth paying. As energy saving methods (thermal wheels and plate heat exchangers) also present a risk, CIBSE recommends that these are bypassed and not used in the current environment Of course, some of these solutions are temporary but other, smart office elements like touchless versions of door handles, room/desk booking systems (wayfinding) and reception sign-in procedures look set to be with us for the longer term. These all affect the M&E, as well as the architecture and design of buildings. We will overcome COVID-19 but we need to listen to the lessons that we are learning, and some will most certainly become permanent before the next virus that hits the human race comes along!
Combining superior performance and reliability, new Ultima Diaphragm Flush Valves from American Standard are built to reduce maintenance and save water in commercial applications. The flush valves, available for commercial urinals and toilets, feature exclusive and proprietary DynaClean Technology, engineered to stop valve run-on. Those who have stepped foot in a public restroom with a toilet continuously running have experienced the most prevalent problem with diaphragm flush valves. A clogged refill orifice causes the valve to continuously run and not shut off, which can potentially waste one to two gallons of water per minute. To prevent valve run-on, each Ultima Diaphragm Flush Valve has a DynaClean Wiper Spring, American Standard’s exclusive self-cleaning technology, which cleans the refill orifice with every flush. chlorine-resistant material Ultima Diaphragm Flush Valve is available through top distributors and at plumbing supply houses nationwide The wiper spring keeps the orifice clear of debris and mineral build-up, helping to deliver maximum performance with every flush while saving on water usage and maintenance costs. With toughness and reliability in mind, the Ultima Diaphragm Flush Valve is equipped with a proprietary EvoLast Diaphragm, designed to outperform and outlast diaphragm flush valves from industry competitors. The EvoLast Diaphragm is made of a premium chlorine-resistant material that delivers consistent performance and resists premature deterioration and failure from water treatment chemicals. Ultima Diaphragm Flush Valves are fitted for the following American Standard commercial products: Urinals Washbrook urinal 6145 Series Manual Urinal Flush Valves (0.125, 0.5 and 1.0 gpf) 6145SM Series Sensor-Operated Urinal Flush Valves (0.125, 0.5 and 1.0 gpf) Toilets Madera toilet 6147 Series Manual Toilet Flush Valves (1.1, 1.28 and 1.6 gpf) 6147SM Series Sensor-Operated Toilet Flush Valves (1.1, 1.28 and 1.6 gpf) diaphragm flush valves Two easy retrofit options offer facility operation and maintenance professional’s flexibility and a streamlined approach to improve performance. Most piston and diaphragm flush valves can be replaced with the Ultima Diaphragm Valve thanks to industry standard rough-in dimensions, or Ultima Diaphragm Assemblies can be installed in flush valves from other major manufacturers to help ensure reliability in existing applications. Both installation options deliver the added benefits of DynaClean and EvoLast. The Ultima Diaphragm Flush Valve is available through top distributors and at plumbing supply houses nationwide.
There is an enormous labor shortage in the skilled trades, and women have stepped up to assume many positions beyond office work alone. Throughout the Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVACR) industry, women are proving to be excellent technicians, service managers, sales people, marketers and more. Networking, mentoring, and education The increasing role of women in the HVACR industry is reflected in the rapid growth of Women in HVACR, a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the lives of its members by empowering women to succeed through networking, mentoring, and education. With a massive labor shortage, women make up a large untapped resource for a potential workforce to fill jobs Approximately 53% of the current skilled-trade workforce is 45 years or older. Estimates say that by 2022, 115,000 new jobs will be available. Currently only 4% of HVACR industry jobs are held by women, with only 1% of field technician jobs held by women. With a massive labor shortage, women make up a large untapped resource for a potential workforce to fill jobs. Members from virtually every sector of the HVACR field “Our organization has snowballed in growth, year over year, providing new avenues for networking, partnerships, collaboration and personal development,” says Danielle Putnam, 2019 Women in HVACR President. “For women excited about growing their careers in the HVACR industry, this organization supports each other and is unashamed to show vulnerability so we can better connect with each other to support and help.” The first international organization for women in the industry, Women in HVACR has 447 current members from virtually every sector of the HVACR field from technicians to contractors, distributors, wholesalers, manufacturers and more, at every level. The organization offers free student memberships as well. There are currently 79 participants in the mentorship program, and the Ambassador Program in 2019 has seven Ambassadors Mentorship programs Member benefits include scholarship opportunities, mentorship programs, a member-only online directory by state, and bi-weekly Zoom video conference calls. Additional benefits include regular updates on Facebook and LinkedIn, an annual conference, and quarterly newsletters. Members can serve as an ambassador for WHVACR and can participate in member-only discussions through HVAC-Talk (a knowledge sharing website), Service Roundtable (a site sharing contractor tips), and HARDI (an organization of distributors). The organization has awarded $19,000 in HVACR Scholarships since 2015. Sponsorship and membership have grown. There are currently 79 participants in the mentorship program, and the brand-new Ambassador Program in 2019 has seven Ambassadors and five scheduled events. Member Involvement “One of our key initiatives for 2019 is member involvement,” says Putnam. “We are focusing on this by setting strategic goals within each board committee to better engage our members. Women love to multi-task and get involved – it is our nature – so we want to make sure the communication channels are open wide and everyone clearly understands how vital they are to the networking, education and mentoring within our organization.” “Women in HVACR is a name that so many want to get behind and support, get involved and be a part of something,” says Putnam. “Member involvement is huge.” Given the interest generated during the panel discussion, Ruth King applied for status as a non-profit organization under the name Women in HVACR Women in HVACR The organization’s growth comes from humble beginnings. In 2002 during the AHR Expo in Chicago, Ruth King and Gwen Hoskins began a discussion about the increased number of women joining the HVACR industry and the need for a way to share knowledge and experience through networking while encouraging and supporting one another. This conversation between two women was the catalyst for the organization. From this simple discussion, a panel discussion was hosted by Comfortech entitled: Women in The Industry during the 2003 conference held in Dallas in conjunction with the Contracting Business Woman of the Year breakfast. The panel consisted of four women within the HVACR industry and was attended by approximately 40 people. From there, given the interest generated during the panel discussion, by the end of the year Ruth King had applied for status as a non-profit organization under the name Women in HVACR. As so it began. Advice To Women We have many male members, and even one male Mentor in our Mentorship program"Currently there are 70 or so sponsors of the organization at various levels. Top-tier Diamond Sponsors are PROPARTS HVAC Parts and Supplies, Ingersoll Rand, Trane, American Standard, York, Johnson Controls, Allied Air Enterprises, Magi-Pak, COSCO and Armstrong Air. One misconception about the Women in HVACR organization is that it is a women-only group. “Though we are a group whose mission is to support women in the HVACR industry, there is no requirement that you be a woman to fulfill this role,” says Karen DeSousa, Women in HVACR Vice President. “We have many male members, and even one male Mentor in our Mentorship program.” What’s the organization’s advice to women entering the HVACR field? “Don’t give up!” says DeSousa. “Though you will experience setbacks and hurdles in many forms, this industry is worth the long hours, sometimes difficult working conditions, endless need for continuing education and more.”
A notable New York City building owner is setting a high bar in energy efficiency and sustainability upgrades. Trane, global provider of indoor comfort solutions, and a brand of Ingersoll Rand, has recognized SL Green Realty Corp. with an Energy Efficiency Leader Award for demonstrating an outstanding commitment to best energy practices. SL Green engaged Trane to install two energy efficient centrifugal chillers and 1.37MW of thermal energy storage at its iconic 11 Madison Avenue building in New York City. This Trane Thermal Battery cooling system behaves like a battery, charging CALMAC thermal batteries when excess or inexpensive energy is available, and discharging when demand or price is high. Trane Thermal Battery cooling system During peak cooling season, the thermal batteries produce more than 500,000 pounds of ice each night During peak cooling season, the thermal batteries produce more than 500,000 pounds of ice each night. The ice then cools off the building during the day, significantly decreasing SL Green’s carbon footprint, energy consumption and operating costs. Through the ice battery installation, SL Green has lowered tenant energy cost by 10 percent, reduced energy and operating costs by more than US$ 730,000 annually and decreased carbon emissions by 1.4 million pounds – the equivalent of taking more than 130 cars off the road or planting 188 acres of trees. Energy Efficiency Leader Awards “The Energy Efficiency Leader Awards recognize businesses and institutions that demonstrate impactful contributions towards environmental sustainability,” said Donny Simmons, president, Trane Commercial HVAC, North America, Europe, Middle East and Africa. “SL Green is a perfect fit; the smart energy practices at 11 Madison Avenue prove business and environmental goals can work hand in hand for a more sustainable future.” The Thermal Battery system plays an integral role in helping SL Green reach its portfolio-wide sustainability goal of 30 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2025, along with its commitments to New York State and New York City energy mandates of reducing greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent by 2050. Energy efficient practices “SL Green capitalizes on every opportunity we have to reduce our carbon footprint because we have a responsibility to our tenants, our partners and New York City as a whole,” said Edward V. Piccinich, Chief Operating Officer, SL Green Realty Corp. “This innovation is a worthwhile investment, both operationally and financially. We’re honored to be recognized by Trane for leading the way.” SL Green’s and Trane’s commitments to sustainability extend beyond energy efficient practices; the companies share similar goals focused on enhancing quality of life and climate action: SL Green is committed to transforming the built office environments; to mitigate climate change and provide a high quality of life for all New Yorkers. The company’s vision has been manifested through the development of One Vanderbilt, a new, Class A office tower where all design, construction, and operational elements prioritize environmental stewardship and societal responsibility. Trane is meeting the challenge of climate change through bold 2030 Sustainability Commitments. Its Gigaton Challenge is designed to reduce the customer carbon footprint from buildings, homes and transportation by one gigaton1 CO2e, while leading by example in its own operations – achieving carbon neutral and net positive water operations